In my last discussion concerning tonal adjustment of violin family instruments, I touched on a number of topics, mostly dealing with different aspects of the bridge and sound post. More specifically, one needs to understand that the bridge and sound post work together as a fulcrum and lever system, and need to be approached as such, in order to allow them to do their job in the most efficient manner.
To best understand how this system works, try to visualize the following: When the bow strikes, or pulls on the string, the string vibrates along its length to a certain frequency. That mechanical energy is transmitted to and through the bridge, which then begins to rock from side to side, with the bass foot of the bridge actually lifting up and then striking down on the top which then begins to move both side to side across the arching, as well as up and down along the length of the top, until those vibrations created by the vibrating string and bridge are also being transmitted through the bass bar and the entire system is vibrating to the frequency of the vibrating string. Next, as I mentioned before, the arching is also moving from side to side, pushing downward on the sound post which in turn is also pushing downward on the back until the back is also pumping and that pumping action between the table and the back are exciting the air within the body until it is also vibrating to the same frequency and then escapes through the sound holes forming the pitch of the tone that one hears.
How a Violin Produces a Sound
What I just outlined is just the very basic overview of how a violin produces a sound. Keep in mind that this process happens instantaneously, and all that I just discussed is what a string player or a luthier refers to as an instrument’s response. So obviously, the choice of wood both for the bridge and the sound post, as well as the width and thickness of the bridge and the hardness, length and position of the sound post are very critical to the quality of the tone, and the quickness with it is produced.
This is why it is so important for the luthier to spend his/her life carefully studying the different schools of making with the goal of always trying understand and remember how the different concepts of arching design coupled with graduation of the plates and their attendant thicknesses affect the tone which is produced. My master told me numerous times that the “holy grail” of violin making is the combination of those three elements-the arching, the graduations, and the specific density of the wood chosen by the maker. Before any successful “set up” can be done on any given instrument, be it a violin, viola, or cello, these three elements must be thoroughly understood and taken into consideration.
Only a Starting Point
Even for the most talented luthier, this kind of understanding doesn’t happen overnight. Most importantly, it must be accepted that whatever set of measurements one is taught in violinmaking school are only a starting point, and one has to be open to doing whatever the instrument is asking of you to help it work its best.
This approach is not “voodoo” violin set up and adjustment. To be both artistic and efficient in assisting the player, a deep understanding of the elements discussed above does truly need to be assimilated by the luthier. In our next discussion, I will offer some insight into the sound post, which in earlier times was referred to as “the soul” of the violin. For each of these discussions, I welcome your comments and any insights you wish to offer, as I consider the learning process to be ever open-ended.